我试图用最小化算法来创建一个井字型机器人,但我得到一个递归错误。

我试图实现一个最小化算法来创建一个井字形机器人,但我得到RecursionError: maximum recursion depth exceeded in comparison error。我有下面的代码。我已经添加了注释,提到了一个函数应该做什么.我最后你能看看下面的代码吗.谢谢。

X = "X"
O = "O"
EMPTY = None

def initial_state():
    """
    Returns starting state of the board.
    """
    return [[EMPTY, EMPTY, EMPTY],
            [EMPTY, EMPTY, EMPTY],
            [EMPTY, EMPTY, EMPTY]]


def player(board):
    """
    Returns player who has the next turn on a board.
    """
    o_counter = 0
    x_counter = 0
    for i in board:
        for j in i:
            if j == 'X':
                x_counter += 1
            elif j == 'O':
                o_counter += 1
    if x_counter == 0 and o_counter == 0:
        return 'O'
    elif x_counter > o_counter:
        return 'O'
    elif o_counter > x_counter:
        return 'X'



def actions(board):
    """
    Returns set of all possible actions (i, j) available on the board.
    """
    action = []
    for i in range(3):
        for j in range(3):
            if board[i][j] is None:
                action.append([i, j])
    return action


def result(board, action):
    """
    Returns the board that results from making move (i, j) on the board.
    """
    p = player(board)
    i, j = action
    board[i][j] = p
    return board


def winner(board):
    """
    Returns the winner of the game, if there is one.
    """
    i = 1
    if board[0][0] == board[1][1] == board[2][2] and (board[0][0] == 'X' or board[0][0] == 'O'):
        return board[0][0]
    elif board[0][2] == board[1][1] == board[2][0] and (board[0][2] == 'X' or board[0][2] == 'O'):
        return  board[0][2]
    else:
        if board[0][0] == board[0][1] == board[0][2] and (board[0][0] == 'X' or board[0][0] == 'O'):
            return board[0][0]
        elif board[i][0] == board[i][1] == board[i][2] and (board[i][0] == 'X' or board[i][0] == 'O'):
            return board[i][0]
        elif board[2][0] == board[2][1] == board[2][2] and (board[2][0] == 'X' or board[2][0] == 'O'):
            return board[2][0]

        elif board[0][0] == board[1][0] == board[2][0] and (board[0][0] == 'X' or board[0][0] == 'O'):
            return board[0][0]
        elif board[0][i] == board[1][i] == board[2][i] and (board[0][i] == 'X' or board[0][i] == 'O'):
            return board[0][i]
        elif board[0][2] == board[1][2] == board[2][2] and (board[0][2] == 'X' or board[0][2] == 'O'):
            return board[0][2]

def terminal(board):
    """
    Returns True if game is over, False otherwise.
    """
    check = True
    if winner(board) == 'X' or winner(board) == 'O':
        return True
    elif check:
        for i in board:
            for j in i:
                if j is None:
                    check = False
                    return False
        if check:
            return True
    else:
        return False


def utility(board):
    """
    Returns 1 if X has won the game, -1 if O has won, 0 otherwise.
    """
    if winner(board) == 'X':
        return 1
    elif winner(board) == 'O':
        return -1
    else:
        return 0


def maximum(board):
    if terminal(board):
        return utility(board)
    v = -9999999999999999999999
    for action in actions(board):
        m = minimum(result(board, action))
        if m > v:
            v = m
    return v


def minimum(board):
    if terminal(board):
        return utility(board)
    v = 9999999999999999999999
    for action in actions(board):
        m = maximum(result(board, action))
        if m < v:
            v = m
    return v


def minimax(board):
    """
    Returns the optimal action for the current player on the board.
    """
    return_action = None
    curr_player = player(board)
    states = actions(board)
    temp_board = board.copy()
    score = 0
    temp_score = 0
    for state in states:
        i, j = state
        if curr_player == 'X':
            temp_board[i][j] = curr_player
            temp_score = maximum(temp_board)
        elif curr_player == 'O':
            temp_board[i][j] = curr_player
            temp_score = minimum(temp_board)
        if curr_player == 'X':
            if temp_score > score:
                score = temp_score
                return_action = state
        elif curr_player == 'O':
            if temp_score < score:
                score = temp_score
                return_action = state

    return  return_action

解决方案:

你的问题是你卡在一个无限条件下,这意味着你一直递归调用函数,直到你达到递归极限。你的问题在于你的玩家函数,以及你如何决定下一个轮到谁。当O在0,0位置下棋,X在0,1位置下棋后,你要决定下一个下棋的是谁。

所以你算一下,O和X都各下了一个令牌。然而你决定谁是下一个的逻辑并不符合这个棋盘状态。

    if x_counter == 0 and o_counter == 0:
        return 'O'
    elif x_counter > o_counter:
        return 'O'
    elif o_counter > x_counter:
        return 'X'

所以当x_counter和y_counter相等但不为0时,你不返回任何东西。这将导致函数返回无,所以你被卡住了,永远不会在0,2的位置放置一个标记。如果O总是在前面,那么任何时候x_counter == o_counter,你应该返回’0’,所以把它改为 “0”。

    if x_counter == o_counter:
        return 'O'
    elif x_counter > o_counter:
        return 'O'
    elif o_counter > x_counter:
        return 'X'

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